Astereae

Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, rarely trees or vines, usually without latex; leaves alter- nate (rarely opposite); heads radiate, disciform, or discoid, usually small to medium-sized (rarely large); involucre cylindric to campanulate (hemispheric), not calyculate, bracts in (2–)3–5(–9) rows, usually imbricate, sometimes nearly equal, without well-developed hyaline margin; receptacle usually naked, nearly always flat or convex; ray corollas white, yellow, or pink to blue or purple, usually strap-shaped (rarely bilabiate), usually female; disc corol- las yellow to white, with five or four (rarely three) equal lobes, filiform to funnelform or with abruptly ampliate limb, bisexual or functionally male; anther apical append- ages flat, lanceolate to deltate, rarely lacking, thecae rarely with basal tail; pollen spherical, tricolporate and echinate; style slender, style branch with acute appendage, scabrous or plumose on outer surface, stigmatic lines running up to base of lanceolate to triangular tip, sweeping hairs on entire outer surface of appendage, style branches pronate; achenes compressed and 2-nerved or angular to terete and multi-nerved (rarely obcompressed); pappus usually of 1–4 series of barbellate or rarely plumose bristles, per- sistent or caducous, sometimes with outer scales or awns, or lacking.

Diagnostic Features

Receptacle usually naked; bracts in 3–5 rows and usually imbricate; and style branches pronate, with acute appendage, scabrous or plumose on outer surface, stigmatic lines running up to base of lan- ceolate to triangular tip.

Geographic distribution

Worldwide with major centers of diver- sity in Africa, North America, and Australia.