Trees, shrubs, subshrubs, perennial or annual herbs without latex; leaves alternate, opposite, fasciculate or whorled; heads discoid or radiate or ligulate, 1-numerous; involucre from cylindrical to widely campanulate, bracts in several series, chartaceous; receptacle usually pilose, occasionally paleous or glabrous; florets usually hermaphroditic, white, yellow, orange, pink, purple to violet; corollas tubular, split, doubly split, ligulate, sub- bilabiate (4 + 1), rarely bilabiate (3 + 2), often villous; anther apical appendage rounded to obtuse or acute, emarginated to bilobed, thecae with or without spurs (calcarate or ecalcarate) and with or without tails (caudate or ecaudate); pollen with or without depressions, aid to understanding the system of classification, spinulate, microechinate, scabrate-microspinulate, granulate, smooth or rarely lophate; styles vary from thick to slender, shortly bilobed or bifid, apex rounded, papillose rarely pilose, style branches rarely recurving; achenes densely villous, with “barnadesioid trichomes”; pappus in a single whorl, plumose, barbellate, setaceous or rarely absent.

Diagnostic Features

Axillary spines frequently present; absence of short, stalked, capitate glands (sesquiterpenes lacking); filaments free or rarely fused; absence of twin hairs on achenes, instead they have “barnadesioid trichomes”; and involucral bracts often spine-tipped.

Geographic distribution

Southern South America, the Andes, and Brazil.