Herbs, shrubs, or small trees without latex; leaves alternate or opposite; heads radiate, various sizes; involucre campanulate or cup-shaped, bracts 1–3-seri- ate, sometimes with hyaline margins; receptacle naked, glabrous; ray corollas female fertile or sterile or neuter,yellow to orange or white, pink, purple or blue; disc corollas hermaphrodite, perfect or functionally male, 5-lobed, yellow to orange or reddish, sometimes pur- plish-black-tipped; anther apical appendage flat triangu- lar-ovate, endothecial tissue polarized, thecae without spurs (ecalcarate) but with tails (caudate); pollen spinu- lose, exine without baculae; styles fertile or sterile, entire or bilobed, with sweeping hairs in a subapical collar or rarely extending down the style branches; achenes homo- or heteromorphic, terete or flattened, sometimes curved, rostrate, winged or fenestrate, exocarp sometimes fleshy and colored; pappus absent.

Diagnostic Features

Lack of pappus; sterile styles in many taxa; widespread heterocarpy; and unusual fruit struc- tures such as fenestrate cavities and a fleshy exocarp.

Geographic distribution

Mainly Africa with a distinct center in South Africa; only Calendula extending outside Africa into Macaronesia, South and Central Europe, and Anatolia eastwards to Iran.