Gnaphalieae

Herbs, subshrubs, or shrubs, without latex; leaves al- ternate, entire; heads disciform or discoid (rarely radi- ate), size varies; involucral bracts imbricate in several rows, generally with a papery upper part (lamina) and a thickened, cartilaginous basal part (stereome); receptacle generally flat to convex, sometimes conical or peg-like, generally epaleate, rarely paleate, squamose or fimbril- liferous; female outer florets generally filiform or often absent; central florets generally perfect, sometimes func- tionally male; anther thecae without spurs, with tails and with endothecial tissue almost always polarized; pol- len with a two-layered ectexine comprising an outer columellate layer and an irregularly interlaced basal layer (“gnaphalioid” type); style branches with hairs apically or sometimes apically and dorsally (rarely dorsally only); achenes generally small and oblong to obovoid; pappus generally of plumose or barbellate to scabrid capillary bristles (occasionally of bristles and scales, only scales, or absent).

Diagnostic Features

Involucral bracts with a papery, often brightly colored lamina and a cartilaginous basal part (stereome); “gnaphalioid” pollen, with a 2-layered ectexine comprising an outer columellate layer and an irregularly interlaced basal layer; stems generally with fibers in phloem and without resin canals; leaves entire; anthers tailed; and achenes small.

Geographic distribution

Centers of diversity in southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and South America.