Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, or small trees usually with latex; leaves usually opposite; heads radiate (3 to ca. 320 florets); involucre campanulate, bracts graduate, without hyaline margins; receptacle alveolate, without chaff; corollas yellow (rarely red, purple, or white); ray corolla present, strap-shaped with three lobes; disc corol- las with five lobes of equal size, longer than wide; anther apical appendage acute, thecae with spurs (calcarate) and tails (caudate) fringed or digitate; pollen echinate, spher- ical; styles slender, apex attenuate, sweeping hairs on upper style shaft and backs of branches, at maturity style branches recurving; achenes oblong or columnar; pappus of numerous long inner capillary bristles and short outer series of squamellae, sometimes with scales or plumose bristles or absent.

Diagnostic Features

Leaves usually opposite; latex pres- ent in most taxa; corollas usually yellow; and pollen echinate.

Geographic distribution

Tropical America with the vast majority in Peru and Ecuador.