Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, trees, or vines, without latex; leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled; heads radiate or discoid (rarely disciform), mostly small to medium-sized, sometimes large; involucre cylindric or globose, bracts usually subequal in 1–2 series (rarely gradate in 3–4+ series), without hyaline margins; receptacle naked or paleate (paleae often restricted to periphery of receptacle), sometimes clasping ray ovaries, smooth; ray florets pistillate, corollas usually yellow or white, strap-shaped with usually three lobes; disk florets bisexual or functionally staminate, corollas yellow with five lobes of equal size; anther apical appendage rounded or usually more or less ovate to deltate, anther thecae pale or purplish, without spurs (ecalcarate) or tails (ecaudate); pollen echinate and spherical; styles slender, deeply di- vided or sometimes undivided, branches truncate to subu- late with short hairs, remainder of style glabrous (except in Blepharipappus); achenes compressed, obcompressed, or terete, achene walls often striate, with phytomelanin layer; pappus of scales or bristles, sometimes absent.

Diagnostic Features

Combination of often glandular foliage; usually subequal phyllaries (often with one phyllary per ray ovary and with phyllary at least partially clasping ray ovary); epaleate or often partially paleate re- ceptacle (with paleae limited to periphery of receptacle, between ray and disc florets); often deeply 3-lobed ray corollas; often dark purple (not blackened) anther thecae; often flattened ray achenes; and often striate, blackened disc achenes.

Geographic distribution

Mainly western North America (espe- cially California).