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Herbs usually perennial, often scapose and stout, or less commonly trailing shrubs or subshrubs, without latex; leaves alternate; heads radiate (less commonly disciform or discoid), small to large (6 to ca. 200); involucre usu- ally campanulate, bracts imbricate, margins not hyaline; receptacle naked, alveolate; floret corollas white, yellow, cream, pink, purple, blue, orange, or red; marginal co- rolla when present, strap-shaped with three teeth, bilabi- ate, sub-bilabiate, or rarely tubular; disc corollas bilabiate or tubular, shallowly lobed, the lobes equal or unequal in length; anther apical appendage not constricted or de- marcated from the thecae (rarely demarcated), acute, th- ecae rarely with spurs (calcarate) but with tails (caudate); pollen usually prolate, exine almost psilate; style slen- der, shallowly bilobed to bifid with two long branches, rounded at the apex, usually dorsally papillose only above the style bifurcation point, papillae rounded, never acute; achene oblong to sub-obovate, truncate, attenuate to ros- trate at the apex, glabrous to pubescent, often glandular, sometimes dimorphic with the marginal achenes con- spicuously larger than the central ones; pappus of one to more series of bristles, scabrid to plumose, usually capil- lary, or absent.

Diagnostic Features

Corollas often brightly colored; marginal corollas usually bilabiate; disc corollas bilabiate or tubular, shallowly lobed, lobes equal to unequal; anther apical appendage not constricted or demarcated; anthers ecalcarate and caudate; and style shallowly bilobed to bifid, rounded at the apex, usually dorsally papillose only above the style bifurcation point, papillae rounded, never acute.

Geographic distribution

Predominately southern South America with outliers in Africa and Asia.