Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs (rarely trees) without latex; leaves alternate or opposite; heads usually radiate (rarely discoid), size varies; involu- cre cylindric to hemispheric, bracts in 1–5 series; recep- tacle usually naked, smooth or pitted; ray florets pistillate, corollas yellow to red or white, strap-shaped with 2–3 lobes; disc corollas yellow with 5(–6) lobes of usually equal size or 1–2 lobes larger than others; anther api- cal appendages usually sclerified, thecae not blackened, without spurs (ecalcarate) and without tails (ecaudate); pollen echinate and spherical; styles slender, apices of style branches truncate or deltate to acuminate, usually variously papillose, recurving at maturity; achene walls striate or ribbed, with phytomelanin layer; pappus of scales and/or bristles (rarely absent).

Diagnostic Features

Epaleate receptacles, most with glandular pockets (dark spots); characteristic smell (monoterpenes); and if glands lacking, then achenes usu- ally strongly 9–15-ribbed.

Geographic distribution

Warm temperate to tropical New World (1 sp. of Flaveria in Australia), mostly southwestern North America.