Dioecious trees or shrubs, without latex; leaves alternate; heads discoid, small (ca. 30, rarely up to 90 Chapter 11: Classification of Compositae 179 180 Funk, Susanna, Stuessy and Robinson florets), unisexual, rarely with a few bisexual florets; in- volucre campanulate to obconic, bracts imbricate, often without hyaline margins; receptacle epaleate, alveolate; corollas yellowish or whitish; male florets with deeply 5-lobed actinomorphic, tubular corollas; anther apical appendage deltate, thecae with spurs (calcarate) and tails (caudate); style characters reduced; pollen oblate-spheroi- dal to sub-prolate, micro-echinate; female florets with 3–5-lobed actinomorphic, tubular to filiform corollas; anthers reduced or absent; style with short, often re- curved, flattened branches, acute to obtuse at the apex, without sweeping hairs; achenes mainly cylindrical to ellipsoid, flattened or not; pappus of numerous barbellate bristles in 1–2 rows or lacking.
Dioecious trees or shrubs often aro- matic with small discoid capitula of ca. 30 florets and heads that are arranged in generally dense racemes or panicles.
Tropical Africa (mainly in the eastern part), Madagascar, and southern Africa, and one species also present in the Arabian Peninsula.